Environment Treaties
International environmental treaties are the official agreement between different countries, to work together to mitigate or control different environmental issues. There are about 95 international treaties on different environmental issues. They can be classify in different heads as follows......
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Main international environmental treaties are:
» Aarhus Convention, 1998:- The Aarhus Convention is a multilateral environmental agreement through which the opportunities for citizens to access environmental information are increased and transparent and reliable regulation procedure is secured. It is also known as “The UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters”. It was signed by 45 states on 25 June 1998 in the Danish city of Aarhus and entered into force on 30 October 2001. This convention grants the public rights regarding access to information, public participation and access to justice, in governmental decision-making processes on matters concerning the local, national and transboundary environment.
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1992 and Kyoto Protocol, 1997:- UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty negotiated at the “Earth Summit”, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. The objective of the treaty is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system". It was opened for signature on 9 May 1992 and entered into force on 21 March 1994. As of May 2011, UNFCCC has 195 parties. In 1997, the parties established the Kyoto Protocol which legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
Vienna Convention, 1985 and Montreal Protocol, 1987:- It was signed in 1985 and entered into force in 1988. It is one of the most successful treaties which having 196 parties. It acts as a framework for the international efforts to protect the ozone layer. But it does not include any reduction goals for the use of CFCs. This drawback is rectified by implementing Montreal Protocol which was signed in 1987, and entered into force in 1987, and entered into force on January 1st, 1989 1987, and entered into force on January 1st, 1989 January 1st, 1989. It aims at the phasing out of the production of substances which are responsible for ozone depletion. This was the first universally ratified treaty in United Nations history due to its wide spread adaptation and implementation.
Basel convention, 1989:- It is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, especially from developed to less developed countries. This convention is intended (1) to minimize the generation of toxic waste (2) to ensure the ecofriendly waste management as close as to the source (3) to assist less developed countries for waste management. This Convention which having 179 parties was opened for signature in 1989, and entered into force in 1992.
Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES), 1973:- It is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals which is also known as “Washington Convention”. It was opened for signature in 1973, and entered into force in 1975, in order to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild. This treaty protects about 5,000 species of animals and 29,000 species of plants by listing them in 3 specific “appendices” namely “Appendix I”, “Appendix II” and “Appendix III”.
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD):- It is an international treaty which considered as a key document for “sustainable development”. This entered into force in 1993 to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. It has 3 major goals i.e. (1) conservation of biodiversity (2) sustainable use of its components; and (3) fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources. As an impact of this convention, the year “2010” was considered as “International Year of Biodiversity”. 
Convention on Migratory Species (CMS):- This treaty is also known as “Bonn convention”. It aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range. This having 119 parties and the depository is the government of the Federal Republic of Germany. This treaty facilitates the cooperation of different countries to protect the migratory species. There are 176 threatened migratory species are conserved under this treaty. 
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar):- It is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands by recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value. It was signed in 1971 and came into force in1975. Currently, The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites) includes 2,122 sites having an area of 507,470,800 acres. 
UN Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD):- It is a convention which aims to combat the desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements. So far, this is the one and only treaty to combat desertification. This was signed in 1994 and entered into force in 1996 and currently, there are 194 parties. As an impact of this treaty, the year 2006 was declared as "International Year of Deserts and Desertification" to spread awareness about the desert areas of the world and especially the problem of desertification.  
Reports of Bali Climate Change Conference
The United Nations Conference on Climate Change, Report
Environment Treaties/Declarations
Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
Earth Summit at Rio
Montriel Protocol
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer